Migraine headaches are a common neurological condition that affects millions of people worldwide. They are characterized by recurring headaches that can be very painful and debilitating and are often accompanied by other symptoms such as sensitivity to light, sound, or smells, nausea, and vomiting. Migraines can last for several hours to several days.
Here’s what you need to know about the different types of migraine headaches and how to manage them:
Episodic vs. Chronic Migraine
Episodic Migraine refers to the pattern of migraine attacks. It is characterized by having fewer than 15 headache days per month. The headache days may or may not be associated with other migraine symptoms. Episodic migraine is the most common type of migraine and affects the majority of migraine sufferers.
In contrast, Chronic Migraine is characterized by having headaches on 15 or more days per month for at least three months, with at least eight of those headache days being migraines. Chronic migraine is less common than episodic migraine but can be more challenging to manage. Treatment usually involves a combination of preventive and abortive medications, as well as lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
Overall, while all migraines share common features, the classification of migraine as episodic or chronic is based on the frequency and pattern of headache attacks.
Migraine without Aura
This is the most common type of migraine headache, accounting for about 80% of all migraines. It is characterized by moderate to severe pain on one side of the head, pulsating or throbbing in nature, and can last for several hours to several days. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and fatigue.
Treatment for migraine without aura typically involves over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, as well as prescription medications like triptans.
Migraine with Aura
This type of migraine headache is less common, affecting about 20% of all migraine sufferers. It is characterized by the same symptoms as migraine without aura, but also includes a visual disturbance called an aura. The aura can manifest as flickering lights, zigzag lines, or blind spots in the vision, and usually lasts for 20-60 minutes before the headache begins.
Treatment for migraine with aura is similar to that for migraine without aura.
This type of migraine headache is associated with the menstrual cycle and occurs in some women during their menstrual period. Symptoms are similar to those of migraine without aura, but may also include bloating, mood changes, and food cravings.
Treatment for menstrual migraines may involve hormonal therapy, over-the-counter pain relievers, or prescription medications such as triptans.
Research is ongoing to understand the causes and treatment options for migraine headaches. Ongoing research includes genetic studies, brain imaging studies, and clinical trials testing new treatments. In particular, there is active research investigating the role of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), in the development of migraines and the potential of new drugs that target these pathways. Additionally, there is ongoing research exploring the use of non-pharmacologic interventions, such as acupuncture and behavioral therapy, in treating migraines. Clinical trials are critical in evaluating the safety and efficacy of novel treatments and interventions for migraines, helping to improve the management and care of individuals with this condition.
Migraine headaches can be a painful and debilitating condition, but with proper treatment and management, they can be controlled. Being aware of your lifestyle and adjusting as appropriate may help in many situations – getting enough sleep, reducing stress, and avoiding triggers such as certain foods, alcohol, and bright lights. If you experience frequent or severe headaches, it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop a personalized treatment plan.
By understanding the different types of migraines and their symptoms, you can better manage your headaches and improve your quality of life.
Participate in a Clinical Trial
If you or someone you know is interested in participating in a clinical trial related to migraine headaches, there may be options available in your area. Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments, therapies, or interventions for a particular condition. By participating in a clinical trial, individuals can help advance our understanding of migraine headaches and potentially benefit from new treatment options.
Enrolling in a clinical trial involves meeting certain eligibility criteria and following a study protocol that outlines the procedures, treatments, and assessments involved. Participants may receive compensation for their time and travel expenses. If you are interested in learning more about clinical trials for migraine headaches or other conditions, click here to search for active trials in your area. Also review the Frequently Asked Question section by clicking here. The FAQ answers many questions relating to how to enroll, what should be expected and many other areas of interest.