Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It occurs when the nerve cells (neurons) in the brain that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps control movement, begin to die. PD affects about 1% of the population over the age of 60, and its prevalence increases with age. Although the exact cause of PD is not known, researchers believe it is a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


The primary symptoms of PD include tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other symptoms may include a reduced sense of smell, sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety, and cognitive changes such as difficulty with memory and concentration. As PD progresses, these symptoms can worsen, making it difficult for individuals to carry out daily activities.


The cause of PD is not fully understood, but researchers believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may play a role. Mutations in certain genes have been linked to the development of PD, and exposure to certain toxins such as pesticides and herbicides has also been associated with an increased risk of PD.


Diagnosing PD can be difficult, especially in the early stages when symptoms may be mild. A neurologist will typically evaluate a patient’s medical history and perform a physical exam to assess symptoms. Imaging tests such as MRI and CT scans may also be used to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.


There is currently no cure for PD, but there are treatments available that can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Medications such as levodopa, dopamine agonists, and MAO-B inhibitors can help increase dopamine levels in the brain and improve movement symptoms. Physical therapy and exercise can also be helpful in improving mobility and balance. In advanced cases, deep brain stimulation surgery may be an option to reduce tremors and improve movement.

Ongoing Research

Research into Parkinson’s disease is multi-faceted and encompasses various areas, including understanding the underlying biology of the disease, developing new treatments, exploring non-pharmacologic interventions, and conducting clinical trials.

One of the most critical areas of Parkinson’s disease research is to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that contribute to the disease’s development and progression. Studies have shown that the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain may play a role in the disease’s pathology. Researchers are exploring ways to reduce alpha-synuclein levels, including gene therapy, immunotherapy, and small-molecule drugs.

Another critical area of Parkinson’s disease research involves developing new treatments to alleviate the motor symptoms of the disease. Current treatments, such as dopamine replacement therapy, can provide relief from symptoms but may cause side effects and lose effectiveness over time. Researchers are investigating new drugs that target different pathways in the brain and testing new technologies, such as deep brain stimulation, to improve symptom management.

Non-pharmacologic interventions, such as exercise and physical therapy, are also being studied as potential treatments for Parkinson’s disease. Studies have shown that exercise can improve motor symptoms, balance, and quality of life for people with Parkinson’s disease. Researchers are investigating the specific types and intensities of exercise that may be most beneficial and exploring the underlying biological mechanisms that contribute to these benefits.

In conclusion

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects movement and can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life. While there is no cure for PD, there are treatments available that can help manage symptoms and improve daily functioning. Early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve outcomes for individuals with PD.

Participate in a Clinical Trial

If you or someone you know is interested in participating in a clinical trial related to Parkinson’s Disease, there may be options available in your area. Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments, therapies, or interventions for a particular condition. By participating in a clinical trial, individuals can help advance our understanding of PD and potentially benefit from new treatment options.

Enrolling in a clinical trial involves meeting certain eligibility criteria and following a study protocol that outlines the procedures, treatments, and assessments involved. Participants may receive compensation for their time and travel expenses. If you are interested in learning more about clinical trials for Parkinson’s Disease or other conditions, click here to search for active trials in your area.  Also review the Frequently Asked Question section by clicking here.  The FAQ answers many questions relating to how to enroll, what should be expected and many other areas of interest.